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Despite the publication of hundreds upon thousands of photographs in the press, most analyses of photojournalism focus on iconic photographs and iconic images in photography.
This chapter aims to highlight how such news icons have lost their status as transparent conveyors of information to take on that of upgraded graphic forms, produced by a self-fulfilling institutionalization process.
Iconic images comprise a Dissertation photojournalisme group of images that are chosen by the profession of photojournalism and are representative of the narrative stereotypes created by the media industry.
They are the most obvious manifestation of the hierarchical organization of information, based on semiotic criteria, of which photography has been an important component since the beginning of the twentieth century. The culmination of a tradition that remembers only the most glorious successes of press photography, their book No Caption Needed confirms the view that the media image is a new history painting — but a spontaneous, paradoxical, miraculous painting.
How can photography, which in theory falls under the category of documentary recording, produce these allegories worthy of the graphic arts?
But one could describe it otherwise. The Agence francaise de presse AFP sends out more than photographs a day. Such a quantity suggests the difficulty of any systematic analysis.
The combination of this constraint with the still limited development of visual studies explains why there is, so far, no all-embracing description of iconographic practices in the news press, a subject that has been relatively unexplored.
An approach such as the one by Hariman and Lucaites has a major defect: Not one of the images forming the framework of the visual analyses of photojournalism has failed to be the object of a process of distinction by its protagonists, in particular by means of international awards as the Pulitzer from and the World Press Photo of the Year from The mystery of their exceptional popularity and their ability to be appropriated seems less opaque if we remember that they have been selected, reproduced, or commented on repeatedly, themselves becoming fully fledged mediatic objects subject to reiterated exhibition, which leads to fame.
Redoubled images, these iconic photographs lose their status as transparent conveyors of information to take on that of upgraded graphic forms, produced by a self-fulfilling institutionalization process.
Would this critical interpretation have seemed legitimate for a photograph of any sort of accident? Would a publisher have devoted a book to illustrating an ordinary event, even if it was endowed with exceptional aesthetic qualities?
It is the importance given to one of the bloodiest massacres of the Algerian Civil War that explains the value assumed by this photograph.
It was cropped and given priority distribution to its customers by the AFP, then selected to illustrate their lead story by about daily newspapers on September 24 and 25, This exceptional exposure in turn became the subject of reflective comments by specialist journalists, confirming that it stood out from the daily flood of news images and had achieved the status of an icon.
The reference to Christian iconography can only be explained by an over-interpretation on the part of Western editors, who were motivated by the customary mediatic reaction of resorting to a symbolic image to illustrate tragedy.
It may be thought that it was selected for its allegorical, conventional, and inoffensive nature, corrected by a cropping that decontextualizes it, and given a inappropriate caption by those who must be called its actual authors: In the mediatic structure, the visibility of a photograph depends solely on the place assigned to it by the news hierarchy.
As a system for selection and amplification of news stories, and to avoid producing only noise, the media apparatus has to organize these operations within the competitive context that shapes its ecology. The imperative of hierarchizing news stories results logically from that constraint.
Intended for consumption by a wide public in a leisure context, mediatic products can rely only on elementary semiotic principles, the simplicity of which guarantees appropriation. Among the tools making it possible to organize the hierarchical arrangement of news stories, the most powerful principle is the variation of scale.
In mediatic space, an indication by means of scale is associated with all published content; it is part of its editorial treatment and determines its placement in the publication. The importance of a news item is measured first in terms of space — the surface area accorded to it — and position or its equivalent, timing, in streamed media.
A news item that is larger in size is more important than a smaller one. Size is an indicator of a relative and contextual nature; its interpretation is based on progressive assimilation of an evolving set of editorial codes.
Many other factors, such as variation of reiteration, the fame of the author, or assignment of a correspondent, complement that attribution of value based on scale, or scalar value.
Frontpage of the New York Times The presence or absence of iconography, its size and its quality are all factors that contribute to signifying and naturalizing the relative importance of a news story.
Like the dimensions of the headline, the format of the photograph of the Titanic, published across five columns in the lead story of The New York Times of April 16,serves to demonstrate the significance attributed by the daily newspaper to the shipwreck of the liner.
The interpretation of an image in a mediatic context depends principally on its scalar value. Of the six illustrations in the article, this image was one of those for which the smallest format was chosen.
Given its low scalar value, at the time it was the subject of neither commentary nor reappropriation.sample informative speech outline on caffeine Dissertation Photojournalisme essay for college of charleston sociology papers for sale.
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